PDF Womens & Dogs Matching Turtleneck Sweater & Tam Knit Knitting Pattern EBook Download

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Ch 2, turn. Hdc in each ch across, and in turning ch. Repeat row 2 until you reach length needed for body.


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Beginning Sleeve: Ch measurement needed for sleeve plus 3. Hdc in 3rd ch from hook, and in each ch across, then in each Hdc across body. When you reach the end of the body, ch same amount as for first sleeve plus 3. Ch 2, turn Next row: Hdc in each st across, ch 2, turn. Repeat this row until sleeve width is met.


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Neck Row: hdc to neck opening, ch needed length for opening, skip same amount of sts on sweater and hdc in remainint st's across. Hdc back across row, and in each of the ch's made, and in each of remaining hdc. Continue with basic row until sleeve width matchs first sleeve width. You will have one more row on one side than on the other. That's ok! Social media is changing the way practitioners deliver messages, [16] as they are concerned with the media, and also customer relationship building. Anthropology, the study of culture and human societies, studies fashion by asking why certain styles are deemed socially appropriate and others are not.

A certain way is chosen and that becomes the fashion as defined by a certain people as a whole, so if a particular style has a meaning in an already occurring set of beliefs that style will become fashion. Through the capitalization and commoditisation of clothing, accessories, and shoes, etc.

The definition of fashion and anti-fashion is as follows: Anti-fashion is fixed and changes little over time. Anti-fashion is different depending on the cultural or social group one is associated with or where one lives, but within that group or locality the style changes little. Fashion is the exact opposite of anti-fashion. Fashion changes very quickly and is not affiliated with one group or area of the world but is spread out throughout the world wherever people can communicate easily with each other. For example, Queen Elizabeth II's coronation gown is an example of anti-fashion because it is traditional and does not change over any period whereas a gown from fashion designer Dior's collection of is fashion because the style will change every season as Dior comes up with a new gown to replace the old one.

In the Dior gown the length, cut, fabric, and embroidery of the gown change from season to season. Anti-fashion is concerned with maintaining the status quo while fashion is concerned with social mobility. Time is expressed in terms of continuity in anti-fashion and as change in fashion. Fashion has changing modes of adornment while anti-fashion has fixed modes of adornment.

Indigenous and peasant modes of adornment are an example of anti-fashion. Change in fashion is part of the larger system and is structured to be a deliberate change in style. Today, people in rich countries are linked to people in poor countries through the commoditization and consumption of what is called fashion. People work long hours in one area of the globe to produce things that people in another part of the globe are anxious to consume. An example of this is the chain of production and consumption of Nike shoes, which are produced in Taiwan and then purchased in North America.

At the production end, there is nation-building a hard working ideology that leads people to produce and entices people to consume with a vast amount of goods for the offering [ clarification needed ]. Commodities are no longer just utilitarian but are fashionable, be they running shoes or sweat suits. The change from anti-fashion to fashion because of the influence of western consumer-driven civilization can be seen in eastern Indonesia.

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The ikat textiles of the Ngada area of eastern Indonesia are changing because of modernization and development. Traditionally, in the Ngada area there was no idea similar to that of the Western idea of fashion, but anti-fashion in the form of traditional textiles and ways to adorn oneself were widely popular. Textiles in Indonesia have played many roles for the local people. Textiles defined a person's rank and status; certain textiles indicated being part of the ruling class. People expressed their ethnic identity and social hierarchy through textiles. Because some Indonesians bartered ikat textiles for food, the textiles constituted economic goods, and as some textile design motifs had spiritual religious meanings, textiles were also a way to communicate religious messages.

In eastern Indonesia, both the production and use of traditional textiles have been transformed as the production, use and value associated with textiles have changed due to modernization. In the past, women produced the textiles either for home consumption or to trade with others. Today, this has changed as most textiles are not being produced at home. Western goods are considered modern and are valued more than traditional goods, including the sarong, which retain a lingering association with colonialism.

Now, sarongs are used only for rituals and ceremonial occasions, whereas western clothes are worn to church or government offices. Civil servants working in urban areas are more likely than peasants to make the distinction between western and traditional clothes. Following Indonesia's independence from the Dutch, people increasingly started buying factory made shirts and sarongs. In textile-producing areas the growing of cotton and production of naturally colored thread became obsolete.

Traditional motifs on textiles are no longer considered the property of a certain social class or age group. Wives of government officials are promoting the use of traditional textiles in the form of western garments such as skirts, vests and blouses. This trend is also being followed by the general populace, and whoever can afford to hire a tailor is doing so to stitch traditional ikat textiles into western clothes.

Thus, traditional textiles are now fashion goods and are no longer confined to the black, white and brown colour palette but come in array of colours. Traditional textiles are also being used in interior decorations and to make handbags, wallets and other accessories, which are considered fashionable by civil servants and their families.

There is also a booming tourist trade in the eastern Indonesian city of Kupang where international as well as domestic tourists are eager to purchase traditionally printed western goods. The use of traditional textiles for fashion is becoming big business in eastern Indonesia, but these traditional textiles are losing their ethnic identity markers and are being used as an item of fashion. In the fashion industry, intellectual property is not enforced as it is within the film industry and music industry.

Robert Glariston, an intellectual property expert, mentioned in a fashion seminar held in LA [ which? We often have to draw the line between designers being inspired by a design and those outright stealing it in different places.

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For the past few years, WGSN has been a dominant source of fashion news and forecasts in encouraging fashion brands worldwide to be inspired by one another. Enticing consumers to buy clothing by establishing new trends is, some have argued, a key component of the industry's success. Intellectual property rules that interfere with this process of trend-making would, in this view, be counter-productive. On the other hand, it is often argued that the blatant theft of new ideas, unique designs, and design details by larger companies is what often contributes to the failure of many smaller or independent design companies.

Since fakes are distinguishable by their poorer quality, there is still a demand for luxury goods, and as only a trademark or logo can be copyrighted, many fashion brands make this one of the most visible aspects of the garment or accessory. In handbags, especially, the designer's brand may be woven into the fabric or the lining fabric from which the bag is made, making the brand an intrinsic element of the bag. In , the World Intellectual Property Organization WIPO held a conference calling for stricter intellectual property enforcement within the fashion industry to better protect small and medium businesses and promote competitiveness within the textile and clothing industries.

There has been great debate about politics' place in fashion and traditionally, the fashion industry has maintained a rather apolitical stance.

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Aiming to "amplify a greater message of unity, inclusion, diversity, and feminism in a fashion space", Mara Hoffman invited the founders of the Women's March on Washington to open her show which featured modern silhouettes of utilitarian wear, described by critics as "Made for a modern warrior" and "Clothing for those who still have work to do". Fashion may be used to promote a cause, such as to promote healthy behavior, [83] to raise money for a cancer cure, [84] or to raise money for local charities [85] such as the Juvenile Protective Association [86] or a children's hospice. One fashion cause is trashion , which is using trash to make clothes, jewelry , and other fashion items in order to promote awareness of pollution.

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African-Americans have used fashion through the years,to express themselves and their ideas. African-American influencers often have been known to start trends though modern day social media, and even in past years they have been able to reach others with their fashion and style. Celebrities like Rihanna , Lupita Nyong'o , Zendaya , and Michelle Obama have been a few of the many fashion idols in the black female community. Today's fashion scene is not just clothes, but also hair and makeup.

Recent trends have included the embracing of natural hair, traditional clothing worn with modern clothing, or traditional patterns used in modern clothing styles. In the mid to end of the s, African American style changed and developed with the times. Around the s is really when the black community was able to create their own distinct styles. Around this time is also when movements started using fashion as one of their outlets. Black activists and supporters used fashion to express their solidarity and support of this civil rights movement. Supporters adorned symbolic clothing, accessories and hairstyles, usually native to Africa.

Politics and fashion were fused together during this time and the use of these symbolic fashion statements sent a message to America and the rest of the world that African Americans were proud of their heritage.


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It was developed into what is called a dashiki, a flowing, loose fitting, tunic style shirt. This cloth became one of the most notorious symbols of this revolution.

The Black Panther Party BPP was an essential piece of the Black Power movement that allowed members that were involved advocate for the African American race in different subjects like equality and politics. The BPP members wore a very distinctive uniform: a black leather jacket, black pants, light blue shirts, a black beret, an afro, dark sunglasses, and usually a fist in the air. This notable uniform was established in , but a different uniform was still in place before; just the sunglasses and leather jackets.

Very few members changed the essential parts of the outfit, but some added personal touches such as necklaces or other jewelry that was usually were a part of African culture. Since the s, fashion models of color, especially black men and women, have experienced an increase in discrimination in the fashion industry. In the years from to , black designers and models were very successful, but as the s came to an end, the fashion aesthetic changed and it did not include black models or designers.

A report from New York Fashion Spring week found that while The lack of diversity also accounts for not only designers but models too, out of four hundred and seventy members of The Council of Fashion Designers of America CFDA only twelve of the members are black. It was also found that in editorial spreads, over eighty percent of models pictured were white and only nine percent were black models.

These numbers have stayed stagnant over the past few years. Many fashion designers have come under fire over the years for what is known as tokenism. Designer or editors will add one or two members on an underrepresented group to help them appear as inclusive and diverse, and to also help them give the illusion that they have equality. There are many examples of cultural appropriation in fashion.

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In many instances, designers can be found using aspects of culture inappropriately, in most cases taking traditional clothing from middle eastern, African, and Hispanic culture and adding it to their runway fashion. Victoria's secret was also under fire for putting traditional native headdresses on their models during a lingerie runway show. From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia.

For other uses, see Fashion disambiguation. Popular style or practice in clothing, personal adornment, or decorative arts.